Ich Will Nicht Mehr Kämpfen

On October 5, 1877, chief Joseph, exhausted and disheartened, surrendered bei the bears Paw Mountains von Montana, forty miles south of Canada. Thunder rolling Down ns Mountain was born in 1840 an the Wallowa Valley of what zu sein now northeastern Oregon. He take it the benennen of his father, (Old) chef Joseph, or joseph the Elder. Wie his father died in 1871, Joseph, or joseph the Younger, was elected his father’s successor. He ongoing his father’s efforts kommen sie secure the Nez Percé claim zu their festland while remaining relaxed towards the whites.

Du schaust: Ich will nicht mehr kämpfen

I bei der tired von fighting. Our chiefs space killed; Looking-glass ist dead. Too-hul-hul-suit zu sein dead. The old men are all dead. It is the young men, now, that say ’yes’ or ’no’. The who führen zu on die young guys ist dead. It zu sein cold, und we have no blankets. The wenig children space freezing to death. Mine people–some of them–have operation away to the hills, und have no blankets, no food. Nobody knows wherein they are—perhaps freezing zu death. I want to oase time to look zum my children, und see exactly how many von them I kann find;maybe ich shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs; mine heart ist sick und sad. Indigenous where die sun now stands, i will fight no an ext forever! cook Joseph’s surrender zu General Nelson A. Miles, October 5, 1877.

“Chief Joseph, die Nez Perce,”External by C. E. S. Wood. The Century: a popular Quarterly. vol. 28, no. 1 (May 1884): 135. Making of AmericaExternal

Indexed Map of Oregon showing die railroads an the state… Chicago: rand McNally und Company, 1876. Transportation and Communication. Geography & Map Division

In 1873, Chief joseph negotiated with ns federal government kommen sie ensure the his human being could remain on their land an the Wallowa Valley as stipulated an 1855 and 1863 festland treaties with die U.S. Government. But, bei a reversal of policy an 1877, General oliver Otis Howard threatened zu attack if the Indians did notfall remiyvue.comate to in Idaho reservation. Chief joseph reluctantly agreed.

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As they started their journey kommen sie Idaho, Chief joseph learned the a kopieren, gruppe of Nez Percé men, tease at ns loss des their homeland, had killed some white settlers in the Salmon river area. Fearing U.S. Military retaliation, die chief began a retreat. With 2,000 soldiers in pursuit, chef Joseph angeführt a eis of about 700 Nez Percé Indians—fewer 보다 200 von whom were warriors, towards freedom—nearly reaching die Canadian border. For over three months, the Nez Percé had actually outmaneuvered and battled your pursuers traveling part 1,000 miles throughout Oregon, Washington, Idaho, und Montana.

By the time Chief joseph surrendered, much more than 200 des his followers had actually died. Although he had negotiated a safe return home zum his people, the Nez Percé rather were taken to eastern Kansas und then kommen sie a reservation in Indian territory (now Oklahoma). An 1879, Chief joseph went zu Washington, D.C., zu meet with President Rutherford Hayes and plead ns case des his people. Finally, an 1885, nineteen years prior to his death, chef Joseph und his pendant were allowed zu return to a reservation in the Pacific Northwest—still much from their homeland an the Wallowa Valley.

“The big Chiefs”, Nez-Percé and Yakima Indians, Astoria, Ore. Centennial 1911. M.B. Marcell, 1911. Summary Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

One beforehand Oregon settler told von his encounter through Chief Joseph:

Why I gott lost once, an’ i came best on camp before i knowed it…’t was night, ‘n’ i was kind o’ creepin’ follow me cautious, an’ the erste thing ich knew there was bei Injun had actually me on every side, an’ miyvue.comk jest marched me up to Jo’s tent, kommen sie know what they need to do v me….

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Well, Jo, that took trost a torch, a pine node he had burnin’, und he organized it close’t up kommen sie my face, und looked me trost an’ down, an’ down an’ up; an’ i never flinched; i jest looked him up an’ under ‘s an excellent ‘s he did me; ‘n’ then he set die knot down, ‘n’ told the men it was all right, –I was`tum tum;’ that meant i was great heart; ‘n’ they provided me all i could eat, ‘n’ a overview to nur me my way, following day, ‘n’ ich could n’t do Jo no one any of ’em take one cent. I had a kind o’ comforter o’ red yarn, i wore ring my neck; an’ at belastung I got Jo kommen sie take that, jest as a kind o’ momento.

Glimpses von California and the Missions, von Helen hunt Jackson. Boston: Little, Brown, und Co., 1902. Pp. 278-79. “California as ich Saw It”: First-Person Narratives des California’s beforehand Years, 1849 kommen sie 1900. Basic Collections