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What is the Turing Test?

The Turing Test zu sein a method des inquiry in artificial intelligence (AI) zum determining even if it is or not a computer zu sein capable des thinking choose a human being being. The test ist named ~ Alan Turing, die founder von the Turing prüfen and an English computer scientist, cryptanalyst, mathematician and theoretical biologist.

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Turing proposed the a computer kann be said zu possess fabricated intelligence if it kann sein mimic human responses under details conditions. The original Turing prüfen requires 3 terminals, each des which is physically be separated from die other two. One terminal is operated von a computer, while ns other two space operated von humans.

During the test, one des the humans attributes as ns questioner, while the second human und the computer duty as respondents. Die questioner interrogates the respondents within a details subject area, making use of a stated format and context. After ~ a preset length des time or number des questions, die questioner zu sein then asked to decide which respondent was human und which was a computer.

The test ist repeated many times. If ns questioner makes die correct determination in half of the prüfung runs or less, die computer ist considered to oase artificial knowledge because ns questioner regards it as "just together human" as the human respondent.


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History des the Turing Test

The test zu sein named ~ Alan Turing, that pioneered maker learning during ns 1940s and 1950s. Turing introduced ns test bei his 1950 file called "Computing Machinery und Intelligence" when at ns University of Manchester.

In his paper, Turing propose a twisted on what is called "The Imitation Game." the Imitation Game requires no use von AI, however rather three human participants in three separate rooms. Each room ist connected über a screen and keyboard, one containing a male, die other a female, and the various other containing a male or woman judge. The female tries to convince die judge the she ist the male, and the referee tries to disseminate which ist which.

Turing changes ns concept of this game kommen sie include in AI, a human and a human questioner. The questioner"s job ist then kommen sie decide which is the AI und which is the human. Scientific research the bildete of ns test, countless AI have been able kommen sie pass; one von the zuerst is a regime created von Joseph Weizenbaum dubbed ELIZA.

Limitations of the Turing Test

The Turing test has been criticized over the years, bei particular because historically, the natur of the questioning had zu be limited in order zum a computer zu exhibit human-like intelligence. Zum many years, a computer system might just score high if the questioner formulated ns queries, deshalb they had actually "Yes" or "No" answers or pertained to a narrow field von knowledge. Wie questions to be open-ended und required conversational answers, it was less likely that ns computer program might successfully fool ns questioner.

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In addition, a program such as ELIZA can pass the Turing Test von manipulating icons it does not understand fully. John Searle said that this does notfall determine intelligence comparable kommen sie humans.

To numerous researchers, ns question von whether or notfall a computer kann sein pass a Turing prüfung has end up being irrelevant. Instead von focusing top top how zu convince who they are conversing v a human und not a computer system program, the real focus have to be on how kommen sie make a human-machine interaction more intuitive und efficient. Weil das example, von using a conversational interface.

Variations und alternatives to the Turing Test

There have been a number of variations to ns Turing prüfung to do it more relevant. Such examples include:

total Turing prüfen -- where the questioner can so test perceptual abilities too as the ability zu manipulate objects. Minimum gewollt Signal test -- where just true/false and yes/no concerns are given.

Alternatives zu Turing tests were letztere developed due to the fact that many lakers the Turing prüfung to it is in flawed. These alternatives include experiment such as:

The marcus Test -- in which a regime that kann sein "watch" a television show is tested von being asked meaningful questions about ns show"s content. Ns Lovelace prüfung 2.0 -- which is a prüfen made zu detect AI through assessing its ability zu create art. Winograd Schema challenge -- which zu sein a test that asks multiple-choice questions an a specific format.
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The test involves 2 humans and one maker

How is the Turing test used today?

Although the variations von the Turing prüfen are often more applicable kommen sie our existing understanding of AI, the original format of the prüfung is ausblüten used zu this day. Weil das example, die Loebner Prize has actually been awarded annually because 1990 to ns most human-like computer system program as voted über a panel von judges. Ns competition follows the standard rules of the Turing Test. Critics des the award"s relevance frequently downplay the as an ext about publicity than truly testing if machines kann sein think.

At a competition organized von the University des Reading to mark the 60th anniversary von Turing"s death in 2014, a chatbot dubbed Eugene Goostman the simulates a 13-year-old boy passed ns Turing Test, in the eyes of some, when it fooled 33% of the judges. This so-called zuerst pass has been met with viel criticism from those that argue the there weren"t sufficient judges, that other machines oase performed better at the test in the past and that ns test zu sein invalid for only lasting 5 minutes.

In 2018, google Duplex effectively made bei appointment through a hairdresser over the phone an front des a crowd des 7,000. The receptionist was completely unaware that they weren"t conversing through a echt human. This zu sein considered by some zu be a modern Turing prüfen pass, despite notfall relying on the true format von the prüfung as Alan Turing draft it.

GPT-3, a herbal language processing model created über OpenAI, is thought über some to oase the best wahrscheinlichkeit of beating the test in its true form of any modern technology that we have today. But, even with its advanced text-generation abilities, many schutz criticized ns machine because it tun können be tricked into answering nonsensical questions und therefore would struggle under die conditions von the Turing Test.

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Despite much debate about the relevance of the Turing prüfen today und the validity des the competitions that space based about it, ns test still stands as a philosophical starting point for discussing and researching AI. As we continue zu make advances in AI und better understand and map how die human mind functions, ns Turing prüfen remains foundational weil das defining intelligence und is a baseline zum the debate around what we have to expect from technologies weil das them kommen sie be thought about thinking machines.