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hauptsächlich information:

King Ludwig ii of Bavaria

Short biography

Born top top 25th ehrenvoll 1845 in Schloss Nymphenburg king of Bavaria 1864–1886 died on 13th June 1886 bei Lake Starnberg

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Ludwig ii (G. Schachinger)

in eternal an enig

Even prior to he died, the king had currently become something des a legend. "I want kommen sie remain in eternal mystery kommen sie myself and others", Ludwig when told his governess, and it zu sein this mysterious prime that ausblüten fascinates world today.

die poet paulus Verlaine dubbed Ludwig ii the "only true king of this century". Ns shy dreamer, who had actually none of the common characteristics des a well-known king, lebt on, still idolized, as "the Kini". His palaces, which to be barred zu strangers, have been visited von over 130 million people since his death. They are records bei stone von the ideologen fantasy welt which the könig built together a refuge from reality. His historic, poetic und ideal interpretation des his duty as king was lastly his downfall. It is possible the he wanted to das rather 보다 return to reality.

prinz Ludwig

Portrait von the young Ludwig (W. Tauber)

The prince was born on the benennen day von the canonized louis IX, king of France und founder of the House des Bourbon. His grandfather and godfather Ludwig ich of Bavaria, had louis XVI of frankreich as his godfather. This relationship with ns House of Bourbon had in important affect on die way the prince saw himself throughout his life.

Ludwig and his brother otto were streng brought hoch with an emphasis ~ above duty. Their parents Maximilian ii of Bavaria and Marie des Prussia kept themselves punkt a distance.

"Ludwig took pleasure in dressing up … took pleasure in play acting, loved pictures and the like … und liked … make presents of his property, money and other possessions", stated his mother. This was notfall to change. His lively imagination, his tendency zu isolate himself, und his pronounced sense of sovereignty were deshalb already evident wie Ludwig was a child.

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King Ludwig ii (F. V. Piloty)

the young könig

in 1864 Ludwig ii acceded to the throne at ns age of 18 without any kind of experience des life or politics, however adored von women.

Looking back an 1873, he described it thus: "I became könig much too early. I had not learned enough. Ich had made together a great beginning … with ns learning of state laws. Suddenly ich was snatched away from my books und set on ns throne. Well, I bei der still trying to learn …"

In 1866 Ludwig ii suffered ns biggest defeat von his life: in1866, die expanding state of Prussia dominated Austria and Bavaria in the "German War". From then on, Bavaria"s international policy was dictated by Prussia und the king was just a "vassal" von his Prussian uncle.


Crown prince Ludwig was already fascinated von the music dramas und writings von Richard Wagner. He wanted to bring the composer kommen sie Munich as quickly as he became king, und realize his dream of an opera festival. In 1864 he summoned Wagner to him und thus rescued ihm from a serious financial crisis.

"… Today ich was brought to him. He is unfortunately deswegen beautiful and wise, soulful and lordly, that i fear his life must leicht away like a magnificent dream in this base world … freundin cannot imagine the magic of his regard: if he continues to be alive it möchte be a an excellent miracle!" wrote the composer after ~ his zuerst meeting.


Portrait photograph von Richard bagner (F. Hanfstaengl)

In the following years, Munich became the music capital von Europe with die premieres of "Tristan und Isolde" (1865), "Die Meistersinger by Nürnberg" (1868), "Das Rheingold" (1869) and "Die Walküre" (1870). Ludwig ii thus continued die patronage zoll of ns House des Wittelsbach in grand style.

Wagner was however forced kommen sie leave Munich von the ende of 1865 because des conflict with ns government. Letztere Ludwig II so protested against die anti-Semitic sentiments expressed von his friend. That nevertheless continued with his lavish support for Wagner"s work. Die monumental festival theatre planned zum Munich was built bei a vastly simplified form an Bayreuth and inaugurated in 1876 with the cycle "Der Ring von Nibelungen". An 1882 "Parsifal" was premiered here. Without Ludwig II"s commitment, there would never oase been a Bayreuth Festival.

Fantasy welt

Ludwig ii was possessed über the idea von a divine kingdom by the Grace von God. In reality he was a constitution monarch, a head des state through rights and duties und little freedom des action. Weil das this reason he built a fantasy world around him in which – far removed from reality – he can feel he was a real king. Indigenous 1875 on the lived punkt night und slept during die day.

Idealized designs über scene painters for a "New hohenschwangau Castle" high above die tranquil hohenschwangau of Ludwig II"s father, a "Byzantine Palace" und a copy des Versailles to be already bei existence von 1868. From die beginning, Ludwig"s fantasy welt embraced several different epochs. Ns "New Castle" (subsequently, was based on christen kingship bei the middle Ages, and the neu Versailles, developed from 1878 on the Herreninsel, recalls the baroque absolutism von the Bourbon könig of France. Linderhof bei the Graswangtal, built from 1869, imitates a variety of styles, with die help des the latest technology.

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Ludwig ii on a night-time sleigh journey (R. Wenig)

The latest an innovation was deshalb used weil das the highly elaborate coaches und sleighs in which the king travelled weist night, sometimes bei historic costume.

Ludwig invested more und more time in the mountains and correspondingly much less time bei Munich. His fantasy world was further maintained über "private performances" an the Hoftheater: operas and plays performed zum the king alone.

Grail könig

Ludwig ii increasingly figured out himself through Parzival, ns legendary medieval figure who became Grail king through his purity and faith and thereby redeemed his sinladen uncle. Die inner battle for freedom indigenous sin and purity ist distressingly evident in the diaries von the incredibly pious king. This details legend zu sein the subject des Richard Wagner"s belastung work "Parsifal", which the began in 1877. Wagner and his circle privately referred to the könig as "Parsifal", und his difficulties were incorporated into the dramatisch of ns Grail., originally a denkmal to ns minnesingers des medieval times, was reinterpreted as the Castle of the divine Grail und the Throne Room was redesigned as the Hall von the divine Grail – devoted to the mystery des salvation zum the world.

"The recluse"

The "ideal monarchical poetic solitude" i beg your pardon the king chose for himself was not in the lang run compatible through his duties together a head des state. The neu settings he was constantly devising zum himself were equally beyond the privatgelände means of a king. Ludwig failed through his desire kommen sie anchor his illusions und dreams in reality.

From 1885 top top foreign bank threatened zu seize his property. Ns king"s refusal kommen sie react rationally led the government kommen sie declare er insane and depose him bei 1886 – a procedure notfall provided for in the Bavarian constitution. Ludwig ii was interned bei Berg Palace. Die next job he died in mysterious circumstances in Lake Starnberg, with each other with die psychiatrist who had actually certified ihm as insane.