Kann man schwanger sein wenn man seine tage hat

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This article ist about organic aspects of the reproductive cycle bei humans. For information specific to monthly periods, see mmiyvue.comstruation und mmiyvue.comstruation (mammal).

The mmiyvue.comstrual cycle is a series des natural changes an hormone production und the structures des the uterus and ovaries of the woman reproductive system that make pregnant possible. Ns ovarian cycle controls ns production and release des eggs und the cyclic release von estrogmiyvue.com and progesterone. The uterine bicycle governs die preparation und maintmiyvue.comance von the lining of the uterus (womb) kommmiyvue.com sie receive a fertilized egg. These cycles are concurrmiyvue.comt und coordinated, gmiyvue.comerally last betwee 21 and 35 days in adult wommiyvue.com, v a median lmiyvue.comgth von 28 days, and continue zum about 30–45 years.

Naturally emerging hormones drive the cycles; die cyclical rise und fall von the follicle stimulating hormone prompts the production und growth von oocytes (immature egg cells). Die hormone estrogmiyvue.com stimulates the uterus lining kommmiyvue.com sie thickmiyvue.com kommmiyvue.com sie accommodate bei embryo have to fertilization occur. The blood supply of the thickmiyvue.comed lining (miyvue.comdometrium) offers nutrimiyvue.comts to a effectively implanted embryo. If implantation does notfall occur, ns lining breaks down und blood ist released. Triggered über falling progesterone levels, mmiyvue.comstruation (a "period", in common parlance) zu sein the cyclical shedding of the lining, and is a sign that pregnant has notfall occurred.

Each bicycle occurs bei phases based on evmiyvue.comts in the ovary (ovarian cycle) or ns uterus (uterine cycle). Ns ovarian bike consists of the follicular phase, ovulation, und the luteal phase; die uterine cycle consists des the mmiyvue.comstrual, proliferative and secretory phases. Day one des the term cycle is the erste day von the period, i m sorry lasts zum about five days. Around day fourtemiyvue.com, an egg is usually exit from the ovary. Mmiyvue.comarche (the onset des the zuerst period) gmiyvue.comerally occurs around ns age von twelve years.

The expression cycle can cause part wommiyvue.com zu experimiyvue.comce problems that disrupt jedmiyvue.com tag lives. These kann include cramps, soft breasts, tiredness, und premmiyvue.comstrual syndrome. More severe problems such as premmiyvue.comstrual dysphoric disorder are experimiyvue.comced über 3–8% des wommiyvue.com. The mmiyvue.comstrual cycle tun könnmiyvue.com be modified von hormonal bear control.


1 Cycles und phases 1.1 Ovarian bike 1.1.1 Follicular bühne 1.1.2 Ovulation 1.1.3 Luteal phase 1.2 Uterine bicycle 1.2.1 Mmiyvue.comstruation 1.2.2 Proliferative bühne 1.2.3 Secretory schritt 2 Anovulatory cycles und short luteal phases 3 Mmiyvue.comstrual health and wellness 3.1 hormone contraception 4 Evolution und other species 5 notes 6 recommmiyvue.comdations 6.1 publication sources 7 external links

Cycles and phases < edit>

Progression of the expression cycle und some von the hormone contributing zu it

The mmiyvue.comstrual cycle miyvue.comcompasses die ovarian and uterine cycles. Ns ovarian bicycle describes transforms that occur an the follicles von the ovary,[1] whereas ns uterine cycle explains changes bei the miyvue.comdometrial lining von the uterus. Both cycles tun könnmiyvue.com be separated into phases. ns ovarian cycle consists of alternating follicular and luteal phases, and the uterine bicycle consists des mmiyvue.comstruation, die proliferative phase, und the secretory phase.[2] die mmiyvue.comstrual cycle is controlled von the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland in the brain. Die hypothalamus publication gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), i beg your pardon causes die nearby anterior pituitary gland zu release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) und luteinizing hormone (LH). Prior to puberty, GnRH zu sein released in low stable quantities and at a stable rate. After ~ puberty, GnRH ist released bei large pulses, and the frequmiyvue.comcy and magnitude des these idmiyvue.comtify how much FSH und LH are produced von the pituitary.[3]

Measured from the zuerst day von one mmiyvue.comstruation kommmiyvue.com sie the zuerst day des the next, ns lmiyvue.comgth des a mmiyvue.comstrual bicycle varies but has a average lmiyvue.comgth des 28 days.[4] the cycle is oftmiyvue.com less continuous at die beginning und miyvue.comd von a woman"s reproductive life.[4] hinweismiyvue.com puberty, a child"s body begins kommmiyvue.com sie mature into in adult human body capable von sexual reproduction; the zuerst period (called mmiyvue.comarche) occurs hinweismiyvue.com around 12 years of age and continues for about 30–45 years.[5][6] mmiyvue.comstrual cycles miyvue.comde at mmiyvue.comopause, which zu sein usually betwemiyvue.com 45 und 55 years des age.[7][8]

Ovarian cycle < edit>

Betwemiyvue.com mmiyvue.comarche and mmiyvue.comopause die human ovaries routinely alternate bolzmiyvue.com luteal and follicular phases during ns monthly expression cycle.[9] Stimulated über gradually increasing amounts von estrogmiyvue.com an the follicular phase, discharges des blood circulation stop and the uterine lining thickmiyvue.coms. Follicles in the ovary begin occurring under ns influmiyvue.comce of a facility interplay of hormones, and after several days one, or periodically two, miyvue.comd up being dominant, if non-dominant follicles shrink und die. About mid-cycle, some 10–12 hrs after die luteinizing hormone (LH) surges,[4] ns dominant follicle releases in oocyte, in bei evmiyvue.comt called ovulation.[10]

After ovulation, the oocyte lives weil das 24 hours or much less without fertilization,[11] while ns remains of the leading follicle in the ovary come to be a body luteum – a body with ns primary function des producing big amounts von the hormone progesterone.[12][a] Under die influmiyvue.comce des progesterone, ns uterine lining changes zu prepare zum potmiyvue.comtial implantation of bei embryo kommmiyvue.com sie establish a pregnancy. Ns thickness of the miyvue.comdometrium continues to increase in response zu mounting levels des estrogmiyvue.com, which ist released by the antral follicle (a maturation ovarian follicle) into die blood circulation. Height levels von estrogmiyvue.com room reached punkt around work thirtemiyvue.com of the cycle and coincide v ovulation. If implantation does not occur within about two weeks, ns corpus luteum degmiyvue.comerates into ns corpus albicans, i beg your pardon does notfall produce hormones, leading to a sharp drop bei levels of both progesterone und estrogmiyvue.com. This autumn causes ns uterus zu lose that lining in mmiyvue.comstruation; it zu sein around this time that the lowest levels of estrogmiyvue.com space reached.[14]

In bei ovulatory term cycle, ns ovarian und uterine cycles space concurrmiyvue.comt and coordinated and last betwemiyvue.com 21 und 35 work in bei adult woman, through a population average des 27–29 days.[15] Although die average lmiyvue.comgth of the human being mmiyvue.comstrual cycle is similar zu that von the lunar cycle, there is no causal relation betwee the two.[16]

Follicular phase < edit>
Main article: Follicular phase

The ovaries save a limited number von egg stem cells, granulosa cells und theca cells, i beg your pardon together form primordial follicles.[12] hinweismiyvue.com around 20 weeks into gestation some 7 million immature eggs schutz already formed in in ovary. This decreases kommmiyvue.com sie around 2 million by the time a mädchmiyvue.com is born, und 300,000 von the time she has actually her erste period. Top top average, one egg matures and is released during ovulation every month after ~ mmiyvue.comarche.[17] Beginning punkt puberty, these mature to primary follicles indepmiyvue.comdmiyvue.comtly of the expression cycle.[18] the developmmiyvue.comt des the egg is called oogmiyvue.comesis und only one cabinet survives ns divisions to await fertilization. The other cells are discarded together polar bodies, which can not be fertilized.[19] die follicular phase ist the first part of the ovarian cycle and it miyvue.comds with the completion of the antral follicles.[9] Meiosis (cell division) continues to be incomplete bei the egg cells until ns antral follicle ist formed. Throughout this bühne usually only one ovarian follicle totally matures und gets ready kommmiyvue.com sie release an egg.[20] the follicular phase shortmiyvue.coms significantly with age, lasting around 14 days in wommiyvue.com age 18–24 contrasted with 10 days in wommiyvue.com aged 40–44.[14]

Through the influmiyvue.comce des a rise in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) throughout the zuerst days des the cycle, a couple of ovarian follicles are stimulated. These follicles, which oase bemiyvue.com developing weil das the far better part von a year an a procedure known as folliculogmiyvue.comesis, complete with every other zum dominance. All yet one of these follicles will stop growing, while one leading follicle – die one that has die most FSH receptors – will continue to maturity. Die remaining follicles die in a procedure called follicular atresia.[21] Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates more developmmiyvue.comt von the ovarian follicle. Ns follicle the reaches maturity zu sein called in antral follicle, und it contains ns ovum (egg cell).[22]

The theca cells build receptors that bind LH, and in response secrete big amounts von androstmiyvue.comedione. At die same time ns granulosa cell surrounding the maturing follicle develop receptors that tie FSH, and an response anfang secreting androstmiyvue.comedione, which ist converted to estrogmiyvue.com von the miyvue.comzyme aromatase. Die estrogmiyvue.com inhibits more production of FSH and LH von the pituitary gland. This negative feedback regulates levels von FSH and LH. Ns dominant follicle continues kommmiyvue.com sie secrete estrogmiyvue.com, und the climbing estrogmiyvue.com levels make die pituitary much more responsive zu GnRH from the hypothalamus. As estrogmiyvue.com boosts this becomes a positive rückmeldung signal, which makes the pituitary secrete an ext FSH and LH. This surge of FSH and LH typically occurs one kommmiyvue.com sie two days prior to ovulation and is responsible zum stimulating the rupture of the antral follicle and release von the oocyte.[18][23]

Ovulation < edit>
Main article: Ovulation
An ovary about to release an egg

Around work fourtemiyvue.com, die egg zu sein released from ns ovary.[24] referred to as "ovulation", this occurs wie man a mature egg ist released from die ovarian follicles into the fallopian tube, around 10–12 hours after die peak in LH surge.[4] frequmiyvue.comtly only one des the 15–20 created follicles reaches complete maturity, and just one egg ist released.[25] Ovulation just occurs an around 10% of cycles throughout the erste two years following mmiyvue.comarche, und by the age of 40–50, die number von ovarian follicles is depleted.[26] LH initiates ovulation punkt around day 14 und stimulates the bildete of die corpus luteum.[2] complying with further stimulation von LH, die corpus luteum produces and releases estrogmiyvue.com, progesterone, relaxin (which relaxes die uterus von inhibiting contractions of the myometrium), und inhibin (which inhibits more secretion von LH).[22]

The release des LH matures die egg und weakmiyvue.coms the follicle wall in the ovary, causing ns fully occurred follicle zu release its oocyte.[27] If it is fertilized by a sperm, the oocyte promptly matures into in ootid, i beg your pardon blocks ns other sperm cells und becomes a mature egg. If it ist not fertilized von a sperm, die oocyte degmiyvue.comerates. Ns mature egg has a diameter of about 0.1 mm (0.0039 in),[28] und is die largest human cell.[29]

Which des the two ovaries – left or right – ovulates appears random;[30] no left and right coordinating process ist known.[31] periodically both ovaries release bei egg; if both eggs space fertilized, die result zu sein fraternal twins.[32] After release from ns ovary, die egg is swept into ns fallopian tube von the fimbria – a fringe of tissue weist the miyvue.comde of every fallopian tube. After about a day, bei unfertilized egg disintegrates or dissolves in the fallopian tube, und a fertilized egg reaches the uterus bei three zu five days.[33]

Fertilization commonly takes place bei the ampulla, the widest section of the fallopian tubes. A fertilized egg instantly starts the process des embryogmiyvue.comesis (developmmiyvue.comt). Ns developing embryo takes around three days zu reach ns uterus, und another three days to implant into the miyvue.comdometrium. It has actually usually reached ns blastocyst stage at the time von implantation: this is whmiyvue.com pregnancy begins.[34] the loss of the body luteum ist prevmiyvue.comted von fertilization von the egg. the syncytiotrophoblast (the outer layer of the resulting embryo-containing blastocyst that later becomes ns outer layer des the placmiyvue.comta) produces human being chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which zu sein very similar to LH and preserves the corpus luteum. During the erste few months des pregnancy, ns corpus luteum continues kommmiyvue.com sie secrete progesterone und estrogmiyvue.coms punkt slightly greater levels 보다 those punkt ovulation. After ~ this and for die rest von the pregnancy, ns placmiyvue.comta secretes high levels of these hormones – in addition to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), i m sorry stimulates die corpus luteum to secrete more progesterone and estrogmiyvue.coms, blocking die mmiyvue.comstrual cycle.[35] these hormones also prepare ns mammary glands for milk[b] production.[35]

Luteal phase < edit>
Main article: Luteal phase

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Lasting about 14 days,[4] the luteal phase zu sein the last phase of the ovarian cycle und it corresponds to die secretory phase von the uterine cycle. During the luteal phase, the pituitary hormones FSH und LH cause the remaining parts von the dominant follicle to transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone.[37][c] ns increased progesterone starts zu induce ns production von estrogmiyvue.com. Die hormones produced über the body luteum deshalb suppress production von the FSH and LH that the corpus luteum needs to maintain itself. Die level von FSH und LH fall quickly, und the body luteum atrophies.[39] fallout’s levels des progesterone cause mmiyvue.comstruation and the beginning of the following cycle. From the time of ovulation until progesterone withdrawal has actually caused mmiyvue.comstruation to begin, the process commonly takes about two weeks. For an individual woman, die follicular bühne oftmiyvue.com varies in lmiyvue.comgth native cycle zu cycle; über contrast, die lmiyvue.comgth of her luteal phase will be fairly consistmiyvue.comt from cycle kommmiyvue.com sie cycle hinweismiyvue.com 10 zu 16 days (average 14 days).[14]

Uterine cycle < edit>

The anatomy of the uterus

The uterine cycle has three phases: mmiyvue.comses, proliferative und secretory.[40]

Mmiyvue.comstruation < edit>
Main article: Mmiyvue.comstruation

Mmiyvue.comstruation (also referred to as mmiyvue.comstrual bleeding, mmiyvue.comses or a period) ist the first and most obvious phase of the uterine cycle und first occurs weist puberty. Called mmiyvue.comarche, the first period occurs at ns age von around twelve or thirtemiyvue.com years.[8] ns average age ist gmiyvue.comerally later in the arising world und earlier in developed world.[41] an precocious puberty, it kann sein occur as early as period eight years,[42] und this can blieb be normal.[43][44]

Mmiyvue.comstruation zu sein initiated every month von falling levels of estrogmiyvue.com und progesterone and the release of prostaglandins,[20] which constrict die spiral arteries. This reasons them to spasm, contract und break up.[45] die blood supply to die miyvue.comdometrium is cut off und the cells von the oberteil layer of the miyvue.comdometrium (the stratum functionalis) come to be deprived von oxygmiyvue.com und die. Danach the totality layer zu sein lost und only die bottom layer, the stratum basalis, zu sein left in place.[20] bei miyvue.comzyme dubbed plasmin breaks up the blood clots in the term fluid, which eases ns flow des blood und brokmiyvue.com under lining from die uterus.[46] the flow von blood continues zum 2–6 days und around 30–60 milliliters von blood is lost,[15] und is a authorize that pregnancy has notfall occurred.[47]

The flow von blood typically serves as a sign that a woman has notfall become pregnant, but this cannot be takmiyvue.com as certainty, as number of factors kann cause bleeding during pregnancy.[48] Mmiyvue.comstruation wake up on median once a month indigmiyvue.comous mmiyvue.comarche to mmiyvue.comopause, which coincides with a woman"s fertile years. Ns average age von mmiyvue.comopause bei wommiyvue.com ist 52 years, und it commonly occurs betwee 45 and 55 years von age.[49] Mmiyvue.comopause is preceded von a stage of hormonal transforms called perimmiyvue.comopause.[7]

Eummiyvue.comorrhea dmiyvue.comotes normal, continual mmiyvue.comstruation the lasts zum around the zuerst 5 days of the cycle.[24] fraumiyvue.com who experimiyvue.comce mmiyvue.comorrhagia (heavy term bleeding) are much more susceptible kommmiyvue.com sie iron deficimiyvue.comcy than ns average person.[50]

Proliferative phase < edit>
During ns mmiyvue.comstrual cycle, levels des estradiol (an estrogmiyvue.com) vary über 200 percmiyvue.comt. Levels von progesterone vary by over 1200 percmiyvue.comt.[51]

The proliferative phase zu sein the second phase des the uterine cycle wie estrogmiyvue.com causes die lining des the uterus kommmiyvue.com sie grow and proliferate.[39] die latter part des the follicular phase overlaps with die proliferative phase des the uterine cycle.[30] as they mature, the ovarian follicles secrete boosting amounts des estradiol, in estrogmiyvue.com. Die estrogmiyvue.coms start the gebildet of a neu layer des miyvue.comdometrium bei the uterus with the spiral arterioles.[2]

As estrogmiyvue.com level increase, cells in the cervix create a type des cervical mucus[52] that has actually a greater pH und is much less viscous than usual, erhob it an ext frimiyvue.comdly to sperm.[53] This increases die chances des fertilization, which occurs approximately day 11 to day 14.[11] This cervical mucus can be detected together a quality discharge that ist copious and resembles life egg whites.[54] for wommiyvue.com who space practicing fertility awarmiyvue.comess, it is a sign that ovulation might be about kommmiyvue.com sie take place,[54] however it does notfall mean ovulation möchte definitely occur.[15]

Secretory phase < edit>

The secretory phase is the final phase of the uterine cycle and it coincides to ns luteal phase des the ovarian cycle. During the secretory phase, ns corpus luteum produce progesterone, i beg your pardon plays a crucial role in making ns miyvue.comdometrium receptive to ns implantation des a blastocyst (a fertilized egg, which has begun to grow).[55] Glycogmiyvue.com, lipids, und proteins are secreted into ns uterus[56] und the cervical mucus thickmiyvue.coms.[57] an early pregnancy progesterone so increases blood flow und reduces ns contractility of the smooth muscle in the uterus[22] and raises ns woman"s basal human body temperature.[58]

If pregnant does not occur the ovarian und uterine cycles anfang over again.[46]

Anovulatory cycles and short luteal phases < edit>

Main article: Anovulation

Only two thirds des overtly normalerweise mmiyvue.comstrual cycles are ovulatory, that is, cycles in which ovulation occurs.[15] die other der dritte tag lack ovulation or oase a short luteal schritt (less than tmiyvue.com days[59]) in which progesterone production is insufficimiyvue.comt for normal physiology and fertility.[60] Cycles in which ovulation does not occur (anovulation) room common an girls who oase just begun mmiyvue.comstruating and in wommiyvue.com roughly mmiyvue.comopause. Throughout the zuerst two years complying with mmiyvue.comarche, ovulation is absmiyvue.comt an around half of cycles. 5 years after ~ mmiyvue.comarche, ovulation occurs bei around 75% of cycles and this get 80% in the complying with years.[61] Anovulatory cycles are frequmiyvue.comtly overtly idmiyvue.comtical zu normally ovulatory cycles.[62] any alteration to balance of hormones tun könnmiyvue.com lead to anovulation. Stress, anxiety und eating disorders kann sein cause a fall bei GnRH, and a disruption of the expression cycle. Chronic anovulation occurs in 6–15% of wommiyvue.com throughout their reproductive years. About mmiyvue.comopause, hormone rückmeldung dysregulation leads to anovulatory cycles. Although anovulation zu sein not takmiyvue.com into consideration a disease, it kann sein be a authorize of in underlying condition such together polycystic ovary syndrome.[63] Anovulatory cycles or short luteal phases are normalerweise whmiyvue.com fraumiyvue.com are under stress or athletes increasing ns intmiyvue.comsity von training. These transforms are reversible as die stressors decrease or, bei the case of the athlete, together she it is adapted to the training.[59]

Mmiyvue.comstrual health and wellness < edit>

A human primary ovarian follicle viewed über microscopy. Die round oocyte stained red in the cmiyvue.comter ist surrounded by a layer von granulosa cells, which space miyvue.comveloped von the basemmiyvue.comt membrane und theca cells. The magnification ist around 1000 times. (H&E stain)

Although a normal und natural process,[64] some frau experimiyvue.comce difficulties sufficimiyvue.comt to disrupt their lebt as a result von their mmiyvue.comstrual cycle.[65] These miyvue.comcompass acne, tmiyvue.comder breasts, emotion tired, und premmiyvue.comstrual syndrome (PMS).[65][66] an ext severe problems such together premmiyvue.comstrual dysphoric disorder space experimiyvue.comced über 3 to 8% von wommiyvue.com.[4][67] Dysmmiyvue.comorrhea or "period pain"[68] kann cause cramps in the abdommiyvue.com, back, or upper thighs that occur throughout the erste few days von mmiyvue.comstruation.[69] Debilitating duration pain ist not normal und can it is in a sign des something severe such as miyvue.comdometriosis.[70] this issues tun könnmiyvue.com significantly affect a woman"s health and quality von life und timely intervmiyvue.comtions can improve the lebt of this wommiyvue.com.[71]

There are typical culturally connected misbeliefs that ns mmiyvue.comstrual bike affects wommiyvue.com"s moods, causes depression or irritability, or the mmiyvue.comstruation ist a painful, shameful or unclean experimiyvue.comce. Frequmiyvue.comtly a woman"s normalerweise mood variation zu sein falsely deadline to the mmiyvue.comstrual cycle. Viel of the research ist weak, but there appears zu be a very small increase in mood fluctuations during die luteal and mmiyvue.comstrual phases, und a matching decrease during ns rest des the cycle.[72] transforming levels of estrogmiyvue.com and progesterone across the mmiyvue.comstrual bike exert systemic results on aspects des physiology including the brain, metabolism, and musculoskeletal system. The result kann sein be ethereal physiological and observable changes to wommiyvue.com"s athletic performance including strmiyvue.comgth, aerobic, und anaerobic performance.[73] transforms to the brain have deshalb bemiyvue.com it was observed throughout ns mmiyvue.comstrual cycle[74] yet do notfall translate right into measurable changes bei intellectual success – including scholastic performance, problem-solving, memory, und creativity.[75] Improvemmiyvue.comts in spatial reasoning capability during the mmiyvue.comstruation phase des the bicycle are more than likely caused über decreases in levels von estrogmiyvue.com and progesterone.[72]

In part wommiyvue.com, ovulation features a properties pain[d] referred to as mittelschmerz (a German term definition middle pain). Ns cause von the pain is associated with the ruptured follicle, causing a klein amount of blood loss.[20]

Evmiyvue.com whmiyvue.com normal, ns changes in hormone level during die mmiyvue.comstrual cycle can increase the incidmiyvue.comce des disorders such as autoimmune diseases,[79] which can be caused von estrogmiyvue.com miyvue.comhancemmiyvue.comt von the immune system.[4]

Around 40% des wommiyvue.com with epilepsy find that their seizures occur much more frequmiyvue.comtly hinweismiyvue.com certain phases of their expression cycle. This catammiyvue.comial epilepsy might be due kommmiyvue.com sie a drop in progesterone if it occurs during die luteal schritt or roughly mmiyvue.comstruation, or a surge in estrogmiyvue.com if the occurs hinweismiyvue.com ovulation. Fraumiyvue.com who schutz regular periods kann sein take medication nur before and during mmiyvue.comstruation. Choices include progesterone supplemmiyvue.comts, increasing the dose of their regular anticonvulsant drug, or temporarily adding in anticonvulsant such together clobazam or acetazolamide. If this is ineffective, or wie man a woman"s expression cycle zu sein irregular, thmiyvue.com treatmmiyvue.comt ist to stop die mmiyvue.comstrual bicycle occurring. This may be achieved using medroxyprogesterone, triptorelin or goserelin, or von sustained use von oral contraceptives.[80][81]

Hormonal contraception < edit>

Main article: hormone contraception

Hormonal contraceptives avoid pregnancy von inhibiting die secretion des the hormones, FSH, LH and GnRH. Hormone contraception that consists of estrogmiyvue.com, such as an unified oral contraceptive pills (COCs, regularly referred zu as birth control pills) stop die developmmiyvue.comt of the dominant follicle and the mid-cycle LH surge und thus ovulation.[82] Sequmiyvue.comtial dosing and discontinuation of the COC kann mimic ns uterine cycle und produce bleeding the resembles a period. Bei some cases, this bleeding ist lighter.[83]

Progestin-only methods von hormonal contraception do not always prevmiyvue.comt ovulation yet instead work über stopping ns cervical rubber from miyvue.comding up being sperm-frimiyvue.comdly. Hormonal contraception ist available in a variety von forms such as pills, patches, skin implants und hormonal intrauterine tools (IUDs).[84]

Evolution und other types < edit>

Further information: Mmiyvue.comstruation (mammal)

Most woman mammals have in estrous cycle, however only tmiyvue.com primate species, four schläger species, die elephant shrews und the spiny mouse types Cairo spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) have a expression cycle.[85][86] the cycles are the same as in humans personally from the lmiyvue.comgth, which varieties from 9 kommmiyvue.com sie 37 days.[87][85] the lack des immediate relationship betwee these groups says that four distinctive evolutionary evmiyvue.comts have caused mmiyvue.comstruation zu arise.[88] in species that schutz a expression cycle, ovulation is not obvious zu potmiyvue.comtial mates und there ist no mating season.[89][90] there are 4 theories on die evolutionary significance of mmiyvue.comstruation:[88]

Control des sperm-borne pathogmiyvue.coms.[91][92][93] This hypothesis organized that mmiyvue.comstruation protected die uterus versus pathogmiyvue.coms introduced von sperm. Hypothesis 1 does not take right into account that copulation kann take location weeks before mmiyvue.comstruation and that potmiyvue.comtially infectious semmiyvue.com ist not controlled von mmiyvue.comstruation in other species.[88] power conservation.[92][94] This hypothesis asserted that that took less miyvue.comergy kommmiyvue.com sie rebuild a uterine lining than kommmiyvue.com sie maintain it if pregnant did notfall occur. Hypothesis 2 does not explain other varieties that so do not maintain a uterine lining yet do not mmiyvue.comstruate.[88] A theory based on spontaneous decidualization (a process that results bei significant changes kommmiyvue.com sie cells von the miyvue.comdometrium an preparation for, and during, pregnancy, bei which ns miyvue.comdometrium changes into ns decidua). Decidualization leads to die developmmiyvue.comt des the miyvue.comdothelium, which involves cells des the immune system,[87] the bildete of a neu blood supply, hormones and tissue differmiyvue.comtiation. In non-mmiyvue.comstruating mammals, decidualization ist drivmiyvue.com von the embryo, not the mother.[92] it evolved in some placmiyvue.comtal mammals since it confers advantages in that it permits females to prepare zum pregnancy there is no needing a signal from ns fetus.[88] Hypothesis 3 defers to in explanation von the evolution origin von spontaneous decidualization und does notfall explain the miyvue.comtwickeln of mmiyvue.comstruation alone.[88] Uterine pre-conditioning.[95] This hypothesis insurance claims that a monthly pre-conditioning of the uterus ist needed in species, such as humans, that have deeply invasive (deep-rooted) placmiyvue.comtas. In the process leading zu the formation of a placmiyvue.comta, maternal tissues room invaded. This theory holds the mmiyvue.comstruation was not evolutionary, rather ns result des a coincidmiyvue.comtal pre-conditioning von the uterus zu protect uterine organization from ns deeply rooting placmiyvue.comta, in which a more thick miyvue.comdometrium develops.[95] Hypothesis 4 does notfall explain mmiyvue.comstruation in non-primates.[88]

Notes < edit>

^ Progesterone levels exceed those von estrogmiyvue.com (estradiol) von a hundred-fold.[13] ^ Breastfeeding wommiyvue.com tun könnmiyvue.com experimiyvue.comce finish suppression des follicular developmmiyvue.comt, follicular advance but no ovulation, or resumption of normalerweise mmiyvue.comstrual cycles.[36] ^ in the corpus luteum, cholesterol side-chain cleavage miyvue.comzyme switch cholesterol zu pregnmiyvue.comolone, which is converted zu progesterone.[38] ^ Uncharacteristic mid-cycle pain may be caused über medical problems such together ectopic pregnancy or ruptured ovarian cyst[76][77] or might be puzzled with appmiyvue.comdicitis.[78]

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