Kind Rennt Stundenlang Durch Die Wohnung

1938 - Point des no return - modern Testimonies des the German-Jewish Diaspora In ns year 1938 die situation des German Jews adjusted abruptly und irrevocably within a few months. A significant increase in the deprivation von rights, discrimination, und persecution was accompanied by an escalation of violence. This dossier shows ns fates des individuals in the German-Jewish diaspora v letters, diary entries, official documents, und photographs.

Du schaust: Kind rennt stundenlang durch die wohnung

In 2018, we markierung 80 years since die momentous events of 1938, i beg your pardon taken together constitute a singular rupture in German-Jewish history. Within a few months, die situation von German Jews changed abruptly und irrevocably. A severe increase bei the deprivation von rights, discrimination, und persecution was accompanied by an escalation des violence. Ns year 1938 offer as bei example zum the terrible consequences of the defamation and exclusion des minorities. Given the national und international trend toward enhancing populism and extremism, this is a fashionable topic. Therefore, ns miyvue.com, in partnership with leo Baeck academy – neu York | Berlin, has developed this dossier to zeigen the fates von individuals bei the German-Jewish diaspora v letters, diary entries, main documents, and photographs. Through these materials, ns memories des those who were lucky enough kommen sie escape will return.

English version of all stories

The children´s house Beith Ahawah


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Photo album des the children"s residence Ahawah (cover) (Leo Baeck Institute neu York | berlin - heinrich Stahl repertoire AR 7171 ALB 78) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/
The Jewish children home bei Auguststraße 14-16 (Berlin Mitte) opens in 1922. Prior to this, die building houses ns Jewish hospital, wherein Jewish and non-Jewish patients space treated alike. Its an excellent reputation leads kommen sie a continuously boosting number of patients that are admitted to die hospital because its early on days in 1861. Hence a move becomes unavoidable in 1914. Afterwards ns space is used as a refugee home zum Jews from east Europe. ~ 1916, a communal kitchen zum children is added. The children’s home is founded von Beate burger who ist a nurse born bei 1886. She takes in children that come, predominantly, from eastern Europe, whereby they space orphaned by pogroms, or who live in precarious society conditions.
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Beate berger with the zuerst group von Eastern Europen refugee children zu arrive punkt Beith Ahawah Children"s house 1923. Sit on die front left ist Somka Reif. (United claims Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Ayelet Bargur) (© blume States Holocaust Memorial Museum, mit freundlicher Genehmigung von Ayelet Bargur)
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The derelict brick building of the previous Jewish children home in the Auguststraße 14-16, photographed on may 4, 2007. The children’s residence Ahawah (Hebrew zum “love”) from 1861 was restituted von the Jewish cases conference to die Jewish community des Berlin an the 1990s. (© Foto: Picture-Alliance / Tagesspiegel)
As a name zum the children’s home, Beate berger choses the Hebrew word "Ahawah" (love). Right after the national Socialist’s rise to energie Beate berger makes up produziert mind the she wants kommen sie bring herstellung protégés kommen sie safety. Weil das this she struggles zu establish one more children’s house under die same name near Haifa i m sorry she manages kommen sie do an Kirjat Bialik an 1934. From then on she travels back and forth between Germany und Mandatory Palestine bei order to accompany youngsters from berlin to Haifa. Since Mandatory Palestine is blieb under British management it zu sein only possible to receive permits zum children who oase reached ns age von 15. Younger children from ns children’s home Ahawah bei Berlin are notfall allowed to enter. Until herstellung last travel an 1939 Beate burger manages to rettung about 100 youngsters from Germany. Altogether she accompanies ca. 300 children from Europe zu Mandatory Palestine. Beate berger dies in May 1939 in Kirjat Bialik. Ns majority of herstellung protégés from die Auguststraße 14-16 who have to remain in Berlin are killed an concentration camps.

A photo album for Heinrich Stahl - everyday life


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"In the glory of seventy years/You received love from everywhere/United room young and old bei thanking you/ reaching from East and West through blessed hands" Kinderheim Ahawah Berlin-Haifa, 13. April 1938.” Dedication to heinrich Stahl on die occasion of his 70th date of birth on april 13, 1938 from the children"s home. (Leo Baeck Institute neu York | berlin - heinrich Stahl arsenal AR 7171 ALB 78) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/
On occasion des his 70th birthday heinrich Stahl, ns chair des the Jewish community des Berlin, receives numerous honors. This dedication is written top top the erste page of a picture album which contains several bild of ns children’s house Ahawah that were handled Jewish holidays favor Purim, Passover und Hanukkah or snapshots von its protégés throughout classes or when joyously playing during vacation time. Despite increasing reprisals, German-speaking Jews seek to maintain a specific level von “normality” an their everyday lives. Within die communities occasions are organized und the communities looks after your members und listens attentively to their worries. Even bei private, family members try to keep nach oben hope and dignity, it is in it punkt religious festivities the they memory or an everyday tasks like meeting over coffee und cake.

The finish photo album


Heinrich Stahl, who is born an 1868 bei Berlin, zu sein among those who gestanden up against discrimination und the deprivation von rights zum as lang as possible. Zum many year he was ns director of the Viktoria insurance Company bei Berlin and an the 1930s he heads ns public relief office of the Jewish community. His nomination zu become the chair des the Jewish ar of berlin happens after ~ the national Socialists rose to energie which leads ihm to establish ns "Jewish winter relief”. This charity institution zu sein intended kommen sie support members des the ar who room affected von the racist legislation and suffer financial losses an their occupation or shed their revenue completely. Die help, which zu sein financed von donations, contains practical support favor clothes, coals und food, and also intellectual support by offering social activities and spiritual succor within ns communities. In June 1942, heinrich Stahl zu sein deported to Theresienstadt together with his wife Jenny. He dies in November 1942 at ns age von 75 years after suffering from pneumonia.

"From today on you´ll be referred to as differently" - Lillian and Georg Friedmann room being forced kommen sie change your names kommen sie "Israel" and "Sara"

It can not be said zum sure what went through die minds des Lillian und Georg Friedmann wie they heard von the “Zweite regelungen zur Durchführung des Gesetzes by die Änderung von Familiennamen und Vornamen“ (RGBl I, 1044) from August, 17. Just one thing ist certain: the this governmental procedure joined the steadily growing list of humiliations that the family had to endure. Hinweisen the end of the year 1938 the name change des Georg, Lillian, Bruno und Amelie Friedmann, which was required by January 1939, was carried out. Top top December 21, 1938 die civil it is registered offices in Munich and Berlin as well as ns local police authority an Schwandorf to be informed durch certified briefe that die registration von the additional zuerst names “Israel” und “Sara” take it place.
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Registered letter indigenous Georg und Lillian Friedmann to the civil registry offices an Berlin und Munich to inform them that ns registration of the erste names "Israel". (Leo Baeck Institute neu York | berlin - George and Lillian Friedman collection AR 7223) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/
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Registered letter indigenous Georg und Lillian Friedmann to ns civil it is registered offices in Berlin und Munich to inform lock that die registration of the zuerst names "Israel". (Leo Baeck Institute new York | berlin - George und Lillian Friedman collection AR 7223) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/
A police ordinance regarding die identification des Jews is issued on september 1, 1941 (RGBl I, S. 547) and forces every Jews in the German Reich zu wear a visible yellow badge (German: "Judenstern"). Ns autobiography of the German-Israeli journalist, author and contemporary witness inge Deutschkron, which is often read in schools, directly refers kommen sie this aspect bei its title i wore die Yellow star (German: ich trug den gelben Stern). But ns public labelling of people who are considered “Jewish” under Nuremberg’s Racial laws from 1935 begins even before the introduction des the yellow badge. The Grips-Theater, a berlin theater aimed at children und adolescents, bring away this into account on February 9, 1989, wie a beat based on inge Deutschkron’s memoirs premieres under ns title Ab heute heißt freundin Sara (Starting heute you wollen be called Sara).Compliant with die "Zweiten verordnung zur Durchführung des Gesetzes über die revision von Familiennamen und Vornamen" from ehrenvoll 17, 1938 (RGBl I, 1044) Jews space obligated zu carry a name that identify them as "Jewish" 3 years prior to they have to wear the yellow star. If their previous erste names do not comply with ns guidelines issued by the Reich Minister des the Interior, that is, if they do not conform zu clear Jewish clichés, they are forced to add "Israel" or "Sara" as center names. Thus the antisemitic legislation of the national Socialists intrudes once much more into the private leben of those who are affected und takes away one of their most personal belongings: their very own name. The official re-registration has to be done von January 1939 and announced to the local polite registry office as well as to ns police. The neu stereotypical names oase to it is in used in all correspondence. Bei professional life as well as at legal proceedings they space forced zu use weist least one benennen that identify them plainly as Jews. Noncompliance ist punished with a jail sentence von one month. If it zu sein assumed that die noncompliance was with intent, die prison term tun können amount to half a year. Hedwig Jastrow zu sein a former teacher und a feminist. Her case becomes famous when she, a 76 year alt woman living in Berlin, commits suicide in order to avoid changing herstellung name. Zum 43 year she had been teaching German children und ends produziert handwritten suicide klasse with ns following words: "I do notfall want to direkt without fatherland, home, apartment, civil right, ostracized and insulted. Und I want to be hidden with the name that my parents offered me und which was in parts bequeathed zu me und on i m sorry there ist no blemish. I do not want kommen sie wait until it wollen receive a badge von shame." <1>

Georg und Lillian Friedmann - "The odyssey von the St. Louis"


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Georg und Lillian Friedmann embark the St. Louis in Hamburg on may 13, 1938. (Leo Baeck Institute new York | berlin - George und Lillian Friedman repertoire AR 7223) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/
In 1976 ns movie Voyage von the Damned premiers. It attributes Max über Sydow, Oskar Kreisler und Faye Dunaway und is based on a book of the exact same name über Max Morgan-Witts and Gordon thomas that was published 2 years prior and details the true story des the so-called odyssey von the St. Louis. Ns ship leaves hamburg under Captain Gustav schröder on might 13 1939 zum Cuba. There are 937 passengers on board, die majority von them Jewish refugees. Yet upon arrival in Cuba they are refused entry.
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June 1, 1939: ns St.Louis, a passenger vessel des the Hamburg-Amerika-Linie (HAPAG) with over 900 German-Jewish refugees ~ above board, is not allowed kommen sie land an the Cuban funding Havana despite ns fact that ns government had previously consented kommen sie grant short-lived asylum kommen sie German refugees. Ns ship und almost all of the passengers schutz to return to Europe wherein many of them to be killed bei concentration camps. (© Foto: gemälde alliance/AP Images)
Merely 29 persons, amongst them 22 Jewish refugees, space allowed zu disembark. Every others schutz to stay aboard die St. Louis and return. Even die desperate attempt kommen sie gain support in the US und be enabled to festland there fails. The refugees schutz to return zu Europe. Knowing des the risks that awaits his passengers, Gustav schröder refuses to hand them over to Germany. After number of efforts, the captain manages to let his passenger disembark in Belgium from whereby they room distributed zu Great Britain, France, die Netherlands and Belgium. The assumed rescue proves zu be a fallacy. After German troops invade France, Belgium und the Netherlands, die former passengers des the St. Louis are once much more within with of national Socialists. According to scholars, a quarter von them are killed in the Holocaust. The St. Louis und its courageous captain return kommen sie Hamburg in 1940 wherein Gustav Schröder zu sein transferred kommen sie a desk job. Bei 1957, 2 years prior to his death, the receives die German Order von Merit and Yad Vashem posthumously declares him as one von the "Righteous among ns nations".Among those 22 Jewish refugees who space admitted zu Cuba ist the Friedmann household consisting des six world whose rettung baffle the authors max Morgan-Witts und Gordon Thomas. It ist not till June 20, 1975 the this mystery zu sein solved when lillian Friedmann writes a letter to maximal Morgan-Witts explaining why her otherwise unknown family was allowed to disembark und enter Cuba under dramatic circumstances.
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Jewish emigrants aboard die St. Louis at the port von Havana an the summer of 1939. Castle are not allowed to disembark und were danach sent zurück to Europe. (© Foto: picture-alliance / akg-images)
Lillian Berta Friedmann zu sein born bei 1906 bei Munich. She zu sein the daughter von Isidor und Helene Bach. Until herstellung marriage to georg Friedmann bei July 1930, she lives an her aboriginal city, before settling in with his family in Schwandorf, appr. 50 mile north-east of Munich, whereby they apparently operated a clothes store. Favor ten thousand various other Jews, the Friedmann family is arrested bei the prozess of the november pogroms. George (born 1897) and his brothers Bruno (born 1894) space incarcerated in the mehrstufig concentration camp when Lillian and her 67 year alt mother-in-law Amanda room put right into prison. Instantly after their release ns family struggle kommen sie emigrate because the condition for getting out des the concentration camp ist to leaving Germany as shortly as possible. A sister of lillian lives in Cuba which permits them zu get a i on die “Orinoco”, a ship headed zum Havana, whereby they are hoping to prepare their immigration to die US. However, george does not want to wait until the Orinoco would set sail and instead publications tickets for the St. Louis which leaves a few days earlier. On may 13, 1939 die ship set sail. On board are die Friedman family: Georg und his wife Lillian, his brothers Bruno, his mother Amanda, his sister Celia and her husband james Back. Wie it becomes noticeable that the St. Louis is not permitted to land bei Havana, ns Friedmanns desperately approache far-off relatives in the US, amongst them Sadie Cecilia Annenberg (née Friedmann), who, personally from her name, zu sein unknown kommen sie them. Amanda’s late husband Jakob had actually died in 1937 yet he has a brother an the US through whom he synchronized once or twice a year und who constantly boasts around his daughter Sadie “who is deshalb rich the she does not know how viel money she has.” Sadie does not hesitate und promises zu help. Throughout herstellung life she keeps it a mystery how she manages kommen sie get die Friedmann household off ns St. Louis. Die family has kommen sie wait an Havana zum their quota number to come up in order kommen sie immigrate to die US. During this time Sadie once much more supports them financially. After ripe months Celia und Lillian room allowed to enter ns US und go to new York whereby they arbeit as housekeepers in order kommen sie support their relatives bei Cuba and to stop burdening Sadie. The remaining members of the Friedmann household follow end the kurse of die next months. Georg und Lillian move zu Louisville, Kentucky, an 1941 where lillian works as a legit secretary till she joins herstellung husband an his business, ns Friedman"s Display company which provides window decorations and supplies. She continues his business after Georg’s death in 1950 but employs others kommen sie do ns decorating until she retires in 1967. Their marriage remains childless. Throughout produziert life lillian volunteers zum different Jewish organizations. Lillian Friedmann dies an 2008.

Link tip

elevator informations fotos, eyewitness reports, original documents and animated maps about ns odyssey von the St. Louis (English) (Source: united States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC)

Paul Steiner


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University identity Card from the University von Vienna issued zum Paul Steiner on november 14, 1936 (stamped november 16, 1936). (Leo Baeck Institute neu York | berlin - Marianne Steiner arsenal AR 10443) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/
Paul Steiner is born bei Vienna in 1913. Already at ns age des 13 that starts composing diaries und as a young man he aspires kommen sie become a freelance writer and philosopher i beg your pardon might schutz been encouraged über his acquaintance with the famous austrian philosopher and journalist Egon Friedell (1878-1938). However, after ~ receiving his Matura (high institution diploma) an 1936 he decides to take a different path and studies regulation instead. That finishes his studies in January 1938 while continuing to write poetry. Additionally, while studying law, that works zum the publishing residence Moderne Welt in Vienna to support his mother und himself financially.

Mehr sehen: Kingdom Come Deliverance Lesen Lernen :: Kingdom Come, Kingdom Come: Deliverance

Excerpts from paul Steiner"s diary


With the increasing dangers for Jews bei Austria, Steiner zu sein determined zu emigrate. Bei November 1938, he manages zu get a visa zum America. Before emigrating he access time his mother in Brussels in January 1939 and after a quick stay an London that immigrates via neu York city to Akron, Ohio, an March 1939. Having actually barely arrived, that struggles to get visas zum his mother bei Belgium and his brother Franz who zu sein interned an a camp in France. Bei December 1941 he manages kommen sie get bei American visa zum his brothers Franz. Yet he zu sein unable zu save his mommy who commits suicide before she is to it is in deported to a concentration camp. An July 1941, paul Steiner moves to neu York City, whereby he rental fees a room native Marianne Esberg"s family. Marianne Esberg shares his interest an art, culture, and music. They marry top top February 14, 1942 and in the adhering to year in May their son Thomas zu sein born. Paul Steiner zu sein granted American citizenship in 1945. Danach he becomes the head von Chanticleer Press, the American subsidiary von the brother publisher Adprint. Wie Adprint wants kommen sie sell ns subsidiary in 1952, paul Steiner buys it and turns Chanticleer niederdrücken into in internationally successful agency that specializes in non-fiction books. Paul Steiner’s firm becomes known zum its contemporary four-color prints i m sorry he often produces for other publishing houses und museums worldwide. As well as a vast range von educational titles, paulus Steiner expands the company’s portfolio to include richly illustrated high-quality coffee table books. Paul Steiner dies bei 1996 in New York. Die obituary in the neu York mal acknowledges his lifetime achievements with die words the he "helped reshape die publishing business in the united States and made the illustrated coffee table book in industry staple".

Historical Background: "Anschluss"- Annexation des Austria

The national Socialists’ desire to incorporate Austria into ns German Reich had actually been looming zum quite some time. On February 12, 1938 on ns verge von the so-called berchtesgadener Abkommen, Adolf Hitler demands from the austrian Federal Chancellor kurt Schuschnigg to involve the austrian National Socialist forces bei the shirt government and to install Arthur Seyß-Inquart as "Innen- und Sicherheitsminister" (Interior- and Security Minister) which would grant er control over Austria’s police. Kurt Schuschnigg is able to negotiate a temporary reprieve, but after three days he yields to ns pressure and signs die treaty. Nonetheless, in his speech from February 24, 1939, which i do not care known weil das his exclamation "Red White Red - till death", kurt Schuschnigg speak vehemently an favor von Austria’s independence. On march 9, 1938 kurt Schuschnigg phone call a plebiscite weil das the upcoming Sunday. Due to its many restrictions that room proclaimed an advance und the procedural errors that room made while preparing die plebiscite, kurt Schuschnigg offers his opponents with the lang awaited cause to intervene. Arthur Seyß-Inquart declares die planned plebiscite kommen sie be unconstitutional. Ns German side demands in immediate cancellation of the plebiscite und Kurt Schuschnigg’s resignation bei favor von Arthur Seyß-Inquart if Adolf Hitler orders the mobilization des the German troops. On march 11, 1938 kurt Schuschnigg resigns an a public decided over ns radio. über then the zuerst swastika flags are raised by shirt National Socialists on publicly buildings. During the night des March 12, 1938 German troops march right into Austria. As kurt Schuschnigg requests in his resignation, there is no resistance from the shirt army. Neither does the German Wehrmacht encounter any kind of resistance from die population. On ns contrary, contemporary eye witnesses report the soldiers are primarily welcomed through delight und cheering. On die next work Adolf Hitler arrives in Linz und together with Arthur Seyß-Inquart, who ist now mounted as commonwealth Chancellor, ns "Gesetz über die Wiedervereinigung Österreichs mit kommen sie Deutschen Reich" (RGBl. I 1938, S. 237, law on ns re-unification von Austria und the German Reich) ist fixed and passed on ns same day. Commonwealth President wilhelm Miklas refuses to certify this law und resigns; hence his attributes are pass down kommen sie Arthur Seyß-Inquart. V his signature ns law i do not care legally binding und the annexation von Austria is completed. The tonnage parliamentary election to ns Reichstag on april 10, 1938, turns deshalb into a plebiscite on Austria’s independence. In that election 99,73 per cent of the österreichisch population and 99,01 über cent des the German population vote zum a single list of nazi candidates and the annexation of Austria.

Harry Kranner Fiss


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The erste furlough as an American soldier - harry Kranner Fiss (in the middle) v his mom (on ns right) und his stepfather (on ns left) on march 15, 1945. (Leo Baeck Institute neu York | berlin - harry Kranner Fiss arsenal AR 25595) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/
Harry was born april 15, 1926 an Vienna, Austria. He begins his diary on november 4, 1938. It zu sein meant zu document his emigration yet soon becomes a testimony weil das the november pogroms und how die ensuing events affect his day-to-day life. Ns diary einzelheiten the personal struggles that his household endure till they are finally able kommen sie leave Austria.
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Vienna, in march 1938: Jewish citizens are forced to scrub ns streets together their fellow Vienna residents gestanden by und watch. This special form of humiliation was called a "Reibpartie" (scrubbing party). (© foto alliance/IMAGNO)
During "Kristallnacht", his home ist searched über troops, his stepfather Emil Fichmann (renamed Fiss after ~ immigration) is forced to scrub the sidewalk outside die family"s residence when his uncle Artur Singer zu sein arrested and spends number of months at the concentration camp hinweisen Dachau.

Excerpts from harry Kranner Fiss" diary


Harry’s household arrives in the united States in August 1939 and settles in New york City. An August 1944 harry Fiss volunteers zum service in the vereinigt States Army. After first receiving basic training as an airplane mechanic, he is transferred to die intelligence division due zu his knowledge von German und French. His delivery arrives in Europe nur after V-E Day and Harry Fiss becomes part des the occupation forces bei Germany. There he ist assigned as a translator at ns Nuremberg Trials, and becomes die head von documentation zum the American prosecutor. ~ his honorable discharge from energetic duty in July 1946, harry Fiss lernen at neu York University, whereby he majors in English und graduates in 1949. Although the finds arbeit as a news writer in Hollywood, California, his advancement zu sein hampered von his accent. When more harry Fiss begins studying at neu York universität where that attends graduate courses an psychology; three years letztere he is accepted into their doctoral program an psychology. In 1963 sich kümmern Fiss starts collaboration with george Klein bei conducting dream research. They receive a federal grant kommen sie establish one des the zuerst experimental sleep laboratories. Their research leads to the discovery the dreaming occurs notfall only throughout rapid eye activity (REM) sleep, followed by the importance des dreaming as in adaptive phenomenon. During die late 1960s harry Fiss becomes director of the Clinical Psychology cultivate Program at Albert Einstein College des Medicine und accepts a professorship punkt Long island University. Von the 1970s harry Fiss und his household decide kommen sie leave neu York, and he finds a position at die University von Connecticut"s School of Medicine, whereby he becomes head of the psychology department und chief psychologist bei the department of psychiatry. Top top his retirement at ns age des sixty-six he continues his privatgelände practice and deshalb teaches graduate students bei psychology at ns University of Hartford. Bei 1990 the travels kommen sie Vienna, Austria to give a lecture series on sleep und dreaming, and deshalb gives talks around his experience during ns 1930s. In 2001 harry Fiss"s wife, Gerda, dies after a prolonged illness. He marries Sari Max-Fiss in November 2002. Bei 2003 he is the keynote speaker bei Vienna weil das the fiftieth anniversary des the discovery des rapid eye motion (REM) in sleep. Harry Fiss dies on might 2, 2009.

Historical Background: Novemberpogroms


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During die “Reichskristallnacht” the Jewish inhabitants von the town des Zeven (a district von Bremervoerde) in Northern Germany room rounded up, and the men are arrested. On ns morning of november 10, 1938 ns SA burns the synagogue’s furniture on the market square. Return the ns leadership explains the gewalt as a spontaneous publicly uprising, numerous national and international observers plainly recognize in officially staged pogrom. They room unconvinced über signs like die one top top the gemälde stating "Rache für Mord in vom Rath! Tod den Internationalen Juden und Freimaurern!" (© picture-alliance / akg-images)
Images von burning synagogues, shattered einkaufen windows, ravaged private households and their abused inhabitants have become symbols des the destruction des former succeeding German-Jewish life. Bei the night from the 9th until ns 10th of november 1938 ns orchestrated violence against Jews bei Germany and Austria reaches bei unprecedented dimension. Members of the Sturmabteilung (SA) and Schutzstaffel (SS) smash shop fenster with unrestrained brutality, forcibly intrude right into Jewish households und bully and batter in the open streets those whom they determine as "Jewish". Those state-initiated riots are staged as “spontaneous public rage/Volkszorn” and therefore members des the SA and SS room asked to perform your deeds bei civilian clothes. An contrast to the boycott actions des 1933 there ist no visual documentation for propaganda purposes. On die contrary, this actions are supposed kommen sie happen as prompt “retaliations” weil das the assassination effort on the Legationssekretär Ernst von Rath who worked at ns German embassy bei Paris.
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Destroyed und pillaged Jewish store in Berlin, november 9/10, 1938. Ausschreitungen organized über Nazis versus Jewish citizens, stores and synagogues. (© picture-alliance / akg-images)
On november 7, Herschel Grynszpan shoots the embassy employee. A couple of days earlier,17 year alt Herschel Grynszpan, that lives in Paris, learns the his parents room affected von the "Polish Action", in which Jews with Polish nationality that live in the German Reich are kommen sie be deported kommen sie Poland. His initial target ist probably die German ambassador bei Paris yet instead that encounters Ernst von Rath who dies on november 9, 1938. Also though ns reports reach the German public on november 8, 1938, the erste violent clashes that are orchestrated by the SA and SS happened already on die day before.
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Baden-Baden on die day after die “Reichskristallnacht” (November 10, 1938): a group of arrested Jewish men ist being led through ns streets des the city. (© picture-alliance / akg)
The pogroms in Germany reach their height during die night from november 9 zu 10, 1938. Jews bei Austria feeling their results later, yet with full force, as ns organized harassment and excessive violence start after november 10, 1938.
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Destroyed synagogue after ns "Reichskristallnacht" an Vienna 1938. (© picture-alliance / Imagno)
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Antisemitism bei Vienna: ns facade von the cafe Rembrandt und the sidewalk are smeared v Antisemitic slogans. Photographie. 1938. (© picture-alliance / Imagno)
The outcome zu sein devastating: bolzen November 7 und 13, geholfen of the synagogues fall victim to ravages and arson, around 7500 shops are wrecked within a few hours und about 30.000 Jews room arrested the following day und put right into prisons or concentration camps. These actions are specifically directed hinweisen young and affluent men who room taken right into “protective custody” an order to coerce them right into emigrating und relinquishing their assets. Until ns dawn of november 10, 1938, 91 deaths are to be mourned. But the number des victims des these violent excesses, that space euphemistically referred to as “Night des Broken Glass/Kristallnacht”, is much higher: more than 1300 people ns as a result von the november pogroms v violence, through inhuman problems while detained or through suicide.

Elizabeth Melamid - Saved, yet alone


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Certificate of Identity issued kommen sie Elisabeth Jonas on October 12, 1945 von the home Office bei Great Britain. Seven years prior she had managed to leave hamburg on a Kindertransport together a 17-year old. Herstellung parents committed suicide an 1939 (Leo Baeck Institute neu York | berlin - elisabeth Melamid repertoire AR 25691) Lizenz: cc by-nc-nd/3.0/de/
Julius Jonas zu sein born in 1874 an Itzehoe and lives in Hamburg-Altona due to the fact that 1898. He graduates bei law and receives his license zum the ar court des Altona an 1902. Furthermore, he works as a notary, develops his own legislation office and, on a voluntarily basis, ist the chair von the German bar association. When an 1920 he marries Julie Oppenheimer, born in Hamburg in 1895, Julius Jonas already has three children from his zuerst marriage: Annemarie (born 1909), Walter (born 1910), und Jens peter (born 1914). Soon later on two much more daughters come into die family: Elisabeth (born 1921) und Margarethe (born 1922). The zuerst antisemitic regulations are currently passed quickly after the takeover des the national Socialist. Among them is the "Law zum the Restoration von the expert Civil Service" date from april 7, 1933. Besides excluding political adversaries from polite service, it is especially directed against "civil servants des non-Aryan descent". Those who fulfill these conditions can be dismissed or send turn off to in early retirement. Simply those civil servants who obtained their license prior to 1914 or those who have either shed their fathers or boy or served themselves in the erste World war are exempted. As a result des these regulations Julius Jonas loser his position as a notary, yet he is still able kommen sie work together a lawyer. When ns “Fünfte Verordnung zu Reichsbürgergesetz” comes into impact on september 27, 1938 he loses also this option: together a Jew, Julius Jonas is excluded from the gittern on november 30, 1938.
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First page of the “Reichsgesetzblatt” (Reich law Gazette) from april 7, 1933. Two months after die National-Socialist increase to energie it zu sein used as a tool to bring die bureaucracy an line with nazi ideology und dismiss opponents of the NS-regime. Lizenz: cc publicdomain/zero/1.0/deed.de
In die meantime both des his sons oase emigrated. Since 1933 Walter lives in Great britain und jens Peter decides in 1934 kommen sie join a kibbutz in Palestine. Yet his daughters remain in Germany which increasingly troubled Julie und Julius Jonas. Annemarie marries und moves to Berlin. Die two youngest start their education at ns high institution Lyzeum in Othmarschen, but oase to leave the school due zu growing hostilities. Subsequently Elisabeth attends a private secondary school in Hamburg and a commercial college an Switzerland. Yet the progressing deprivation of rights the Jews experience during national Socialism avoids Elisabeth indigenous following her original goal des studying medicine at ns University von Hamburg. Rather she begins herstellung training together a physio therapist at the Swedish Institute zum Physical Therapy, "Schwedische Institut für Heilgymnastik" an Hamburg. Bei November 1938 she receives produziert permit to leave Germany ~ above a “Kindertransport”. ~ above December 1, 1938, produziert sister Margarethe follows. Even Annemarie ist able zu immigrate with her husband und child to Peru. Julie and Julius Jonas also try kommen sie emigrate and initiate ns necessary steps. They pay the “Judenabgabe“ (an arbitrarily fee the Jews schutz to pay) and the "Reichsfluchtsteuer" (a tax instituted during ns Weimar Republic to prevent funding exodus that zu sein implemented throughout the nazi- years zu appropriate Jewish assets). Moreover, they obtain their "Unbedenklichkeitsbescheinigung" (a clearance certificate from die tax office stating that the “Reichsfluchtsteuer“ and also all other taxes have been paid and which zu sein required an order zu emigrate) und dispose von their assets. Die only point that remains ist to sell their house in Walderseestraße 48, i m sorry Julius Jonas had commissioned in 1912 and where his family members has lived due to the fact that then. On die day die sale ist meant kommen sie close, ns couple commits suicide. After taking barbiturate pills, Julius Jonas dies bei the evening von March 4, 1939, his wife Julie passes away on march 6, 1939. According to testimonies they had "put aside" die sleeping pills bei their bedside cabinets. Your suicide note addressed kommen sie Elisabeth and Margarethe starts once more with ns words: "My beloved, lovely children".

Postcards indigenous Julie and Julius Jonas kommen sie their daughters bei England


Until they room prohibited to employ non-Jewish staff, Julie and Julius Jonas rely on die help des Elli junge (née Sewalski) who works as die family’s nanny, housekeeper, und general helper. Jetzt it is produziert turn kommen sie convey the sad news of your parent’s death to produziert former charges. Elisabeth letztere immigrates to ns US wherein she marries george Melamid and has two daughters. She dies an August 2015.

Historical Background: Kindertransport


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Arrival an England on die second "Kindertransport". (© national Archives and Records Administration, college Park, public Domain)
After the november pogroms come to be public, ns British government decides kommen sie ease ns entry requirements zum Jews. It zu sein agreed zu take bei children und adolescents nach oben to die age von 17 and thus form the condition zum one des the largest and at the same time many tragic humanitarian endeavors in history: die “Kindertransport”. Within the framework des this program, Jewish kids from ns German Reich, its annexed territories und countries the are in danger von a hostile takeover, room brought zu Great brothers starting bei late november 1938. The Second World zu sein brings an abrupt ende to die “Kindertransport”. By then, however, good Britain has already taken in around 10.000 children.The governmental period restrictions prevent parents und adults indigenous accompanying the children top top their means thus leaving them in the care von older brothers or other youths who room traveling with them. Bei addition, ns authorities demand a guarantee des 50 lb sterling per child. Die money ist provided von private individuals, various relief agencies und the Jewish communities. Die amount zu sein intended to startseite the child’s sustenance, accommodation, und return because ns admission ist based on ns assumption that the children möchte return kommen sie their homelands and be handed over to their parents after the situation settles down. Until then the children space taken an by pflegen parents, accommodated bei hostels or in collective accommodations. Due to die large number von arriving youngsters it is not always possible kommen sie closely examine ns families before placing the children in their care. Some children find affectionate nähren families who patiently take care of the frequently traumatized children. Rather are less lucky and are exploited as cheap household aids. All of them have bei common that they struggle to get accustomed to in unknown environment and a international language.
The invasion des Poland on september 1, 1939, marks die beginning of the Second welt War und brings in end to ns “Kindertransport”. Germans who space living in Great brothers are claimed “enemy aliens” and put into internment camps. In 1940 this measures so affect roughly 1,000 teenagers who had actually entered an excellent Britain top top a “Kindertransport” und are now of legitimate age. They room interned bei camps on the Isle of Man, an Canada or Australia. Regardless of being categorized as “enemy aliens” they space offered zu join the British equipped forces. Plenty of take this chance to fight against the national Socialists. Due zu their language capability a couple of dozens room assigned to ns Special Forces und serve bei the allied Forces even after 1945.According zu current estimates around 1,5 million Jewish youngsters are killed in the Holocaust. Number of thousand kids survive thanks to die “Kindertransport”. Emigration saves die children from national Socialist persecution, but über the ende of the war many of those rescued have to uncover that they are ns only survivors von their families. Ns hastily und amid tears written notes prior to their exit or ns letters und post cards the they receive in England by mail are frequently the tonnage remnants that remain from your loved ones.

Glossary


Chalutzim


(Hebrew: "pioneer"): members von a Zionist Youth movement

Purim


(Hebrew: "lot"): Purim commemorates the salvation of Jews in Persia indigenous Haman. Top top Purim one reads from ns Megillah (the Book von Esther), eats hamantashen, wears masks and costumes und celebrates exuberantly.

Mehr sehen: " Holocaust Die Geschichte Der Familie Weiss Netflix, The Last Days


(Hebrew: "order"): ceremonial dinner within ns family circle on the zuerst eve des Passover, commemorating die Exodus native Egypt.
(Hebrew: "ascent"): Jewish immigration to ns former brother Mandate Palestine and, after ns declaration of the new state an 1948, to Israel.

Fußnoten

1.Hedwig Jastrow, 28.11.1938, Dok. 181 in: ns Verfolgung und Ermordung das europäischen Juden durch das nationalsozialistische deutschland 1933-1945. Deutsches Reich 1938 - ehrenvoll 1939, maßband 2, behandelt von susanne Heim, R. Oldenbourg Verlag: münchen 2009, S. 512.